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find

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches
       the directory tree rooted at each given file  name  by  evaluating  the
       given  expression  from left to right, according to the rules of prece-
       dence (see section OPERATORS), until the outcome  is  known  (the  left
       hand  side  is  false  for and operations, true for or), at which point
       find moves on to the next file name.

       If you are using find in an environment  where  security  is  important
       (for example if you are using it to seach directories that are writable
       by other users), you should read the "Security Considerations"  chapter
       of the findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files and comes
       with findutils.   That document also includes a  lot  more  detail  and
       discussion  than  this  manual  page,  so you may find it a more useful
       source of information.

OPTIONS
       The ‘-H’, ‘-L’ and ‘-P’  options  control  the  treatment  of  symbolic
       links.  Command-line arguments following these are taken to be names of
       files or directories to be examined, up  to  the  first  argument  that
       begins  with ‘-’, ‘(’, ‘)’, ‘,’, or ‘!’.  That argument and any follow-
       ing arguments are taken to be the expression describing what is  to  be
       searched  for.   If  no paths are given, the current directory is used.
       If no expression is given, the expression ‘-print’  is  used  (but  you
       should probably consider using ‘-print0’ instead, anyway).

       This  manual  page  talks  about  ‘options’ within the expression list.
       These options control the behaviour of find but are  specified  immedi-
       ately  after  the  last path name.  The three ‘real’ options ‘-H’, ‘-L’
       and ‘-P’ must appear before the first path name, if at all.

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This  is  the  default  behaviour.
              When find examines or prints information a file, and the file is
              a symbolic link, the information used shall be  taken  from  the
              properties of the symbolic link itself.


       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information
              about files, the information used shall be taken from the  prop-
              erties  of  the file to which the link points, not from the link
              itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link or find is unable to
              examine  the file to which the link points).  Use of this option
              implies -noleaf.  If you later use the -P option,  -noleaf  will
              still  be  in  effect.   If -L is in effect and find discovers a
              symbolic link to a subdirectory during its search, the subdirec-
              tory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

              When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always
              match against the type of the file that a symbolic  link  points
              bolic link cannot be examined.  If -H is in effect  and  one  of
              the  paths specified on the command line is a symbolic link to a
              directory, the contents  of  that  directory  will  be  examined
              (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the oth-
       ers; the last one appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it
       is  the  default,  the  -P  option should be considered to be in effect
       unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing  of  the  command
       line itself, before any searching has begun.  These options also affect
       how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of
       tests  that  compare files listed on the command line against a file we
       are currently considering.  In each case, the  file  specified  on  the
       command  line  will  have been examined and some of its properties will
       have been saved.  If the named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the
       -P  option  is  in effect (or if neither -H nor -L were specified), the
       information used for the comparison will be taken from  the  properties
       of  the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties
       of the file the link points to.  If find cannot follow  the  link  (for
       example  because it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a
       nonexistent file) the properties of the link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links  listed  as
       the  argument of -newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be
       taken from the file to which the symbolic link points.  The  same  con-
       sideration applies to -anewer and -cnewer.

       The  -follow  option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect
       at the point where it appears (that is, if -L is not used  but  -follow
       is, any symbolic links appearing after -follow on the command line will
       be dereferenced, and those before it will not).



EXPRESSIONS
       The expression is made up of options (which  affect  overall  operation
       rather than the processing of a specific file, and always return true),
       tests (which return a true or false value),  and  actions  (which  have
       side effects and return a true or false value), all separated by opera-
       tors.  -and is assumed where the operator is omitted.

       If the expression contains no actions other than -prune, -print is per-
       formed on all files for which the expression is true.


   OPTIONS
       All options always return true.  Except for -follow and -daystart, they
       always take effect, rather than being processed only when  their  place
       in  the  expression  is reached.  Therefore, for clarity, it is best to
       place them at the beginning of the expression.  A warning is issued  if
              Deprecated;  use  the  -L  option instead.  Dereference symbolic
              links.  Implies -noleaf.  The -follow option affects only  those
              tests  which appear after it on the command line.  Unless the -H
              or -L option has been specified, the  position  of  the  -follow
              option  changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files
              listed as the argument of -newer will be  dereferenced  if  they
              are  symbolic  links.  The same consideration applies to -anewer
              and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type predicate will  always  match
              against  the  type  of  the  file that a symbolic link points to
              rather than the link itself.  Using -follow  causes  the  -lname
              and -ilname predicates always to return false.

       -help, --help
              Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
              Normally,  find will emit an error message when it fails to stat
              a file.  If you give this option and a file is  deleted  between
              the  time find reads the name of the file from the directory and
              the time it tries to stat the file, no  error  message  will  be
              issued.    This also applies to files or directories whose names
              are given on the command line.  This option takes effect at  the
              time  the  command  line  is  read,  which means that you cannot
              search one part of the filesystem with this option on  and  part
              of  it  with  this  option off (if you need to do that, you will
              need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and
              one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
              Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels of direc-
              tories below the command line arguments.   ‘-maxdepth  0’  means
              only  apply the tests and actions to the command line arguments.

       -mindepth levels
              Do not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels  (a
              non-negative  integer).   ‘-mindepth  1’ means process all files
              except the command line arguments.

       -mount Don’t descend directories on other  filesystems.   An  alternate
              name  for  -xdev,  for compatibility with some other versions of
              find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
              Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
              Do not optimize by assuming that  directories  contain  2  fewer
              subdirectories  than  their  hard  link  count.   This option is
              needed when searching filesystems that do not  follow  the  Unix
              directory-link  convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems
              or AFS volume mount points.  Each directory  on  a  normal  Unix
              filesystem  has  at  least  2  hard  links: its name and its ‘.’


       -version, --version
              Print the find version number and exit.

       -warn, -nowarn
              Turn warning messages on or off.  These warnings apply  only  to
              the  command  line  usage, not to any conditions that find might
              encounter when it searches directories.  The  default  behaviour
              corresponds  to -warn if standard input is a tty, and to -nowarn
              otherwise.

       -xdev  Don’t descend directories on other filesystems.


   TESTS
       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
              File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
              File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If
              file is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in
              effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.

       -atime n
              File  was  last  accessed n*24 hours ago.  When find figures out
              how many 24-hour periods ago the file  was  last  accessed,  any
              fractional part is ignored, so to match -atime +1, a file has to
              have been accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
              File’s status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
              File’s status was last changed more recently than file was modi-
              fied.   If  file  is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L
              option is in effect, the  status-change  time  of  the  file  it
              points to is always used.


       -ctime n
              File’s status was last changed n*24 hours ago.  See the comments
              for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
              of file status change times.

       -group gname
              File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
              Like -lname, but the match  is  case  insensitive.   If  the  -L
              option  or  the  -follow  option is in effect, this test returns
              false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
              Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the
              patterns  ‘fo*’  and  ‘F??’  match  the file names ‘Foo’, ‘FOO’,
              ‘foo’, ‘fOo’, etc.   In these patterns, unlike  filename  expan-
              sion  by  the shell, an initial ’.’ can be matched by ’*’.  That
              is, find -name *bar will match the file ‘.foobar’.   Please note
              that  you should quote patterns as a matter of course, otherwise
              the shell will expand any wildcard characters in them.


       -inum n
              File has inode number n.  It  is  normally  easier  to  use  the
              -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
              Behaves  in  the same way as -iwholename.  This option is depre-
              cated, so please do not use it.

       -iregex pattern
              Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
              Like -wholename, but the match is case insensitive.

       -links n
              File has n links.

       -lname pattern
              File is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern  pat-
              tern.  The metacharacters do not treat ‘/’ or ‘.’ specially.  If
              the -L option or the -follow option  is  in  effect,  this  test
              returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
              File’s data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
              File’s  data was last modified n*24 hours ago.  See the comments
              for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
              of file modification times.

       -name pattern
              Base  of  file  name  (the  path  with  the  leading directories
              File was modified more recently than file.  If file  is  a  sym-
              bolic  link and the -H option or the -L option is in effect, the
              modification time of the file it points to is always used.

       -nouser
              No user corresponds to file’s numeric user ID.

       -nogroup
              No group corresponds to file’s numeric group ID.

       -path pattern
              See -wholename.   The predicate -path is also supported by HP-UX
              find.

       -perm mode
              File’s  permission  bits  are  exactly mode (octal or symbolic).
              Since an exact match is required, if you want to use  this  form
              for  symbolic  modes,  you  may have to specify a rather complex
              mode string.  For example ’-perm  g=w’  will  only  match  files
              which  have  mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group write per-
              mission is the only permission set).  It is more likely that you
              will want to use the ’/’ or ’-’ forms, for example ’-perm -g=w’,
              which matches any file with group  write  permission.   See  the
              EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
              All  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic
              modes are accepted in this form, and this is usually the way  in
              which  would want to use them.  You must specify ’u’, ’g’ or ’o’
              if you use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES section for  some
              illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
              Any  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic
              modes are accepted in this form.  You must specify ’u’,  ’g’  or
              ’o’  if  you  use a symbolic mode.  See the EXAMPLES section for
              some illustrative examples.  If no permission bits in  mode  are
              set,  this  test  currently  matches no files.  However, it will
              soon be changed to match any file (the idea is to be  more  con-
              sistent with the behaviour of perm -000).

       -perm +mode
              Deprecated,  old way of searching for files with any of the per-
              mission bits in mode set.  You should use -perm  /mode  instead.
              Trying to use the ’+’ syntax with symbolic modes will yield sur-
              prising results.  For example, ’+u+x’ is a valid  symbolic  mode
              (equivalent to +u,+x, i.e. 0111) and will therefore not be eval-
              uated as -perm +mode but instead as  the  exact  mode  specifier
              -perm  mode  and so it matches files with exact permissions 0111
              instead of files with any execute bit set.  If  you  found  this
              paragraph  confusing,  you’re  not alone - just use -perm /mode.
              This form of the -perm test  is  deprecated  because  the  POSIX
              File refers to the same inode as name.   When -L is  in  effect,
              this can include symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
              File uses n units of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

              ‘b’    for 512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix  is
                     used)

              ‘c’    for bytes

              ‘w’    for two-byte words

              ‘k’    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

              ‘M’    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

              ‘G’    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

              The  size  does  not  count  indirect  blocks, but it does count
              blocks in sparse files that are not actually allocated.  Bear in
              mind  that the ‘%k’ and ‘%b’ format specifiers of -printf handle
              sparse  files  differently.   The  ‘b’  suffix  always   denotes
              512-byte  blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is different
              to the behaviour of -ls.


       -true  Always true.

       -type c
              File is of type c:

              b      block (buffered) special

              c      character (unbuffered) special

              d      directory

              p      named pipe (FIFO)

              f      regular file

              l      symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the
                     -follow  option is in effect, unless the symbolic link is
                     broken.  If you want to search for symbolic links when -L
                     is in effect, use -xtype.

              s      socket

              D      door (Solaris)

       -uid n File’s numeric user ID is n.
              directory ‘src/emacs’ and all files and  directories  under  it,
              and  print the names of the other files found, do something like
              this:
                        find . -wholename ’./src/emacs’ -prune -o -print

       -xtype c
              The same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For  sym-
              bolic  links:  if the -H or -P option was specified, true if the
              file is a link to a file of type c; if the -L  option  has  been
              given,  true  if  c is ‘l’.  In other words, for symbolic links,
              -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

       -context pattern
              (SELinux only) Security context of the file  matches  glob  pat-
              tern.


   ACTIONS
       -delete
              Delete files; true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed,
              an error message is issued.  Use of  this  action  automatically
              turns on the ’-depth’ option.


       -exec command ;
              Execute  command;  true  if 0 status is returned.  All following
              arguments to find are taken to be arguments to the command until
              an  argument  consisting of ‘;’ is encountered.  The string ‘{}’
              is replaced by the current file name being processed  everywhere
              it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments
              where it is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both  of  these
              constructions might need to be escaped (with a ‘\’) or quoted to
              protect them from expansion by the shell.  See the EXAMPLES sec-
              tion  for examples of the use of the ‘-exec’ option.  The speci-
              fied command is run once for each matched file.  The command  is
              executed  in  the  starting  directory.    There are unavoidable
              security problems surrounding  use  of  the  -exec  option;  you
              should use the -execdir option instead.


       -exec command {} +
              This  variant  of the -exec option runs the specified command on
              the selected files, but the command line is built  by  appending
              each  selected file name at the end; the total number of invoca-
              tions of the command will  be  much  less  than  the  number  of
              matched  files.   The command line is built in much the same way
              that xargs builds its command lines.  Only one instance of  ’{}’
              is  allowed  within the command.  The command is executed in the
              starting directory.


       -execdir command ;
              -execdir.


       -fls file
              True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output  file
              is  always created, even if the predicate is never matched.  See
              the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how  unusual
              characters in filenames are handled.


       -fprint file
              True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not
              exist when find is run, it is created; if it does exist,  it  is
              truncated.   The  file names ‘‘/dev/stdout’’ and ‘‘/dev/stderr’’
              are handled specially; they refer to  the  standard  output  and
              standard  error output, respectively.  The output file is always
              created, even if  the  predicate  is  never  matched.   See  the
              UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for  information  about how unusual
              characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0 file
              True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.   The  output
              file  is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.
              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES  section  for  information  about  how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf file format
              True;  like  -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output
              file is always created, even if the predicate is never  matched.
              See  the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for information about how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
              Like -exec but ask the user first (on the  standard  input);  if
              the response does not start with ‘y’ or ‘Y’, do not run the com-
              mand, and return false.  If the command  is  run,  its  standard
              input is redirected from /dev/null.


       -print True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed
              by a newline.   If you  are  piping  the  output  of  find  into
              another  program  and there is the faintest possibility that the
              files which you are searching for might contain a newline,  then
              you should seriously consider using the ‘-print0’ option instead
              of ‘-print’.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for  information
              about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -okdir command ;
              Like -execdir but ask the user first (on the standard input); if
              the response does not start with ‘y’ or ‘Y’, do not run the com-
              mand,  and  return  false.   If the command is run, its standard
              input is redirected from /dev/null.
              may  mean  that flags don’t work as you might expect.  This also
              means that the ‘-’ flag does work (it forces fields to be  left-
              aligned).   Unlike -print, -printf does not add a newline at the
              end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

              \a     Alarm bell.

              \b     Backspace.

              \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush  the
                     output.

              \f     Form feed.

              \n     Newline.

              \r     Carriage return.

              \t     Horizontal tab.

              \v     Vertical tab.

              \      ASCII NUL.

              \\     A literal backslash (‘\’).

              \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

              A ‘\’ character followed by any other character is treated as an
              ordinary character, so they both are printed.

              %%     A literal percent sign.

              %a     File’s last access time in the format returned by  the  C
                     ‘ctime’ function.

              %Ak    File’s  last  access  time  in the format specified by k,
                     which is either ‘@’ or a directive for the  C  ‘strftime’
                     function.   The  possible  values for k are listed below;
                     some of them might not be available on all  systems,  due
                     to differences in ‘strftime’ between systems.

                      @      seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT.

                     Time fields:

                      H      hour (00..23)

                      I      hour (01..12)

                      k      hour ( 0..23)

                             current  timezone  (which may be affected by set-
                             ting the TZ environment variable).  This is a GNU
                             extension.

                      X      locale’s time representation (H:M:S)

                      Z      time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone
                             is determinable

                     Date fields:

                      a      locale’s abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

                      A      locale’s full weekday name, variable length (Sun-
                             day..Saturday)

                      b      locale’s abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

                      B      locale’s  full  month name, variable length (Jan-
                             uary..December)

                      c      locale’s date and time (Sat Nov 04  12:02:33  EST
                             1989)

                      d      day of month (01..31)

                      D      date (mm/dd/yy)

                      h      same as b

                      j      day of year (001..366)

                      m      month (01..12)

                      U      week  number  of year with Sunday as first day of
                             week (00..53)

                      w      day of week (0..6)

                      W      week number of year with Monday as first  day  of
                             week (00..53)

                      x      locale’s date representation (mm/dd/yy)

                      y      last two digits of year (00..99)

                      Y      year (1970...)

              %b     The  amount  of disk space used for this file in 512-byte
                     blocks. Since disk space is allocated in multiples of the
                     filesystem  block  size  this  is  usually  greater  than
                     %s/1024, but it can also be smaller  if  the  file  is  a

              %f     File’s  name  with  any leading directories removed (only
                     the last element).

              %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can  be
                     used for -fstype.

              %g     File’s  group  name, or numeric group ID if the group has
                     no name.

              %G     File’s numeric group ID.

              %h     Leading directories of file’s name (all but the last ele-
                     ment).  If the file name contains no slashes (since it is
                     in the current directory) the  %h  specifier  expands  to
                     ".".

              %H     Command line argument under which file was found.

              %i     File’s inode number (in decimal).

              %k     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks.
                     Since  disk  space  is  allocated  in  multiples  of  the
                     filesystem  block  size  this  is  usually  greater  than
                     %s/1024, but it can also be smaller  if  the  file  is  a
                     sparse file.

              %l     Object  of  symbolic  link (empty string if file is not a
                     symbolic link).

              %m     File’s permission bits (in octal).  This option uses  the
                     ’traditional’  numbers  which  most  Unix implementations
                     use,  but  if  your  particular  implementation  uses  an
                     unusual  ordering of octal permissions bits, you will see
                     a difference between the actual value of the file’s  mode
                     and  the output of %m.   Normally you will want to have a
                     leading zero on this number, and to do this,  you  should
                     use the # flag (as in, for example, ’%#m’).

              %M     File’s  permissions  (in symbolic form, as for ls).  This
                     directive is supported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

              %n     Number of hard links to file.

              %p     File’s name.

              %P     File’s name with the name of the  command  line  argument
                     under which it was found removed.

              %s     File’s size in bytes.

              %t     File’s  last  modification time in the format returned by
                     the C ‘ctime’ function.

              %Z     (SELinux only) file’s security context.

              A ‘%’ character followed by any  other  character  is  discarded
              (but the other character is printed).

              The  %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but the
              other directives do not, even if they  print  numbers.   Numeric
              directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k
              and n.  The ‘-’ format flag is supported and changes the  align-
              ment  of  a field from right-justified (which is the default) to
              left-justified.

              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES  section  for  information  about  how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.



       -prune If -depth is not given, true; if the file is a directory, do not
              descend into it.
              If -depth is given, false; no effect.


       -quit  Exit immediately.  No child processes will be left running,  but
              no  more  paths specified on the command line will be processed.
              For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only
              /tmp/foo.   Any  command  lines  which  have  been built up with
              -execdir ... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The  exit
              status may or may not be zero, depending on whether an error has
              already occurred.


       -ls    True; list current file in ‘ls -dils’ format on standard output.
              The  block counts are of 1K blocks, unless the environment vari-
              able POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte  blocks  are
              used.   See  the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about
              how unusual characters in filenames are handled.



   UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many of the actions of find result in the printing  of  data  which  is
       under  the  control  of  other users.  This includes file names, sizes,
       modification times and so forth.  File names are  a  potential  problem
       since  they  can  contain  any  character except ’\0’ and ’/’.  Unusual
       characters in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable things
       to  your  terminal (for example, changing the settings of your function
       keys on some terminals).  Unusual characters are handled differently by
       various actions, as described below.

       -print0, -fprint0
              Always  print  the exact filename, unchanged, even if the output
              are not under control of files’ owners, and so are  printed  as-
              is.   The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s, %t,
              %u and %U have values which are under the control of files’ own-
              ers  but which cannot be used to send arbitrary data to the ter-
              minal, and so these are printed as-is.  The directives  %f,  %h,
              %l, %p and %P are quoted.  This quoting is performed in the same
              way as for GNU ls.  This is not the same  quoting  mechanism  as
              the one used for  -ls and -fls.   If you are able to decide what
              format to use for the output of find then it is normally  better
              to  use  ’\0’ as a terminator than to use newline, as file names
              can contain white space and newline characters.

       -print, -fprint
              Quoting is handled in the same way as for -printf and  -fprintf.
              If  you  are  using find in a script or in a situation where the
              matched files might have arbitrary names,  you  should  consider
              using -print0 instead of -print.

       The  -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This may
       change in a future release.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
              Force precedence.

       ! expr True if expr is false.

       -not expr
              Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
              Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an  implied
              "and"; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
              Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
              Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
              List;  both  expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of
              expr1 is discarded; the value  of  the  list  is  the  value  of
              expr2.       The  comma operator can be useful for searching for

       -name  This  option  is supported, but POSIX conformance depends on the
              POSIX conformance of the system’s fnmatch(3)  library  function.
              As  of  findutils-4.2.2,  shell metacharacters (’*’. ’?’ or ’[]’
              for example) will match a leading ’.’, because IEEE PASC  inter-
              pretation  126  requires  this.   This is a change from previous
              versions of findutils.

       -type  Supported.   POSIX specifies ‘b’, ‘c’, ‘d’, ‘l’,  ‘p’,  ‘f’  and
              ‘s’.  GNU find also supports ‘D’, representing a Door, where the
              OS provides these.


       -ok    Supported.   Interpretation of the response is not locale-depen-
              dent (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES).


       -newer Supported.   If  the  file  specified  is a symbolic link, it is
              always dereferenced.  This is a change from previous  behaviour,
              which used to take the relevant time from the symbolic link; see
              the HISTORY section below.


       Other predicates
              The predicates ‘-atime’, ‘-ctime’, ‘-depth’, ‘-group’, ‘-links’,
              ‘-mtime’,  ‘-nogroup’,  ‘-nouser’,  ‘-perm’, ‘-print’, ‘-prune’,
              ‘-size’, ‘-user’ and ‘-xdev’, are all supported.


       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses ‘(’, ‘)’, negation ‘!’ and the
       ‘and’ and ‘or’ operators (‘-a’, ‘-o’).

       All  other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions
       beyond the POSIX standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique  to
       GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that

              The  find utility shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering
              a previously visited directory that is an ancestor of  the  last
              file  encountered.  When it detects an infinite loop, find shall
              write a diagnostic message to standard error  and  shall  either
              recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       The  link  count  of  directories  which contain entries which are hard
       links to an ancestor will often be lower than they otherwise should be.
       This  can  mean that GNU find will sometimes optimise away the visiting
       of a subdirectory which is actually a link to an ancestor.  Since  find
       does  not  actually  enter  such a subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid
       emitting a diagnostic message.  Although this behaviour may be somewhat
       confusing,  it  is  unlikely  that  anybody  actually  depends  on this
       behaviour.  If the leaf optimisation has been turned off with  -noleaf,
       the  directory entry will always be examined and the diagnostic message

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides  a default value for the internationalization variables
              that are unset or null.

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values  of  all
              the other internationalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
              The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pat-
              tern matching to be used for the ‘-name’ option.   GNU find uses
              the fnmatch(3) library function, and so support for ‘LC_COLLATE’
              depends on the system library.

              POSIX also specifies that the ‘LC_COLLATE’ environment  variable
              affects  the  interpretation of the user’s response to the query
              issued by ‘-ok’, but this is not the case for GNU find.

       LC_CTYPE
              This variable affects the treatment of  character  classes  used
              with  the ‘-name’ test, if the system’s fnmatch(3) library func-
              tion supports this.   It has no effect on the behaviour  of  the
              ‘-ok’ expression.

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.

       NLSPATH
              Determines the location of the internationalisation message cat-
              alogues.

       PATH   Affects  the directories which are searched to find the executa-
              bles invoked by ‘-exec’, ‘-execdir’, ‘-ok’ and ‘-okdir’.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              Determines  the  block  size  used  by  ‘-ls’  and  ‘-fls’.   If
              ‘POSIXLY_CORRECT’ is set, blocks are units of 512 bytes.  Other-
              wise they are units of 1024 bytes.

       TZ     Affects the time zone used for some of the  time-related  format
              directives of -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.
       Note that this will work incorrectly if there are  any  filenames  con-
       taining newlines, single or double quotes, or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them,

       find /    \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt a%#m %u %p\ns \) , \
                 \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt  %-10s %p\nt \)

       Traverse the filesystem just once, listing setuid files and directories
       into /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big.txt.


       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the
       last  twenty-four  hours.  This command works this way because the time
       since each file was last modified  is  divided  by  24  hours  and  any
       remainder is discarded.  That means that to match -mtime 0, a file will
       have to have a modification in the past which is  less  than  24  hours
       ago.



       find . -perm 664

       Search  for files which have read and write permission for their owner,
       and group, but which other users can read  but  not  write  to.   Files
       which  meet  these  criteria  but  have other permissions bits set (for
       example if someone can execute the file) will not be matched.


       find . -perm -664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for  their  owner
       and  group, and which other users can read, without regard to the pres-
       ence of any extra permission bits (for  example  the  executable  bit).
       This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.


       find . -perm /222

       Search  for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or their
       group, or anybody else).


       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All three of these commands do the same thing, but the first  one  uses
       the  octal  representation  of the file mode, and the other two use the
       symbolic form.  These commands all search for files which are  writable
       by  either  their  owner  or  their  group.  The files don’t have to be
       writable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.




EXIT STATUS
       find exits with status 0  if  all  files  are  processed  successfully,
       greater  than  0  if  errors occur.   This is deliberately a very broad
       description, but if the return value is non-zero, you should  not  rely
       on the correctness of the results of find.


SEE ALSO
       locate(1),  locatedb(5),  updatedb(1),  xargs(1), chmod(1), fnmatch(3),
       regex(7), stat(2), lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3),  strftime(3),  ctime(3),
       Finding Files (on-line in Info, or printed).

HISTORY
       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (’*’. ’?’ or ’[]’ for exam-
       ple) used in filename patterns will match a leading ’.’,  because  IEEE
       POSIX interpretation 126 requires this.

NON-BUGS
       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [path...] [expression]

       This  happens  because  *.c has been expanded by the shell resulting in
       find actually receiving a command line like this:

       find . -name bigram.c code.c frcode.c locate.c -print

       That command is of course not going to work.  Instead of  doing  things
       this way, you should enclose the pattern in quotes:
       $ find . -name e*.ci -print


BUGS
       The test -perm /000 currently matches no files, but for greater consis-
       tency with -perm -000, this will be changed to match  all  files;  this
       change  will probably be made in early 2006.  Meanwhile, a warning mes-
       sage is given if you do this.

       There are security problems inherent in the behaviour  that  the  POSIX
       standard  specifies  for  find,  which  therefore cannot be fixed.  For
       example, the -exec action is inherently insecure, and  -execdir  should
       be used instead.  Please see Finding Files for more information.

       The  best  way  to  report  a  bug  is to use the form at http://savan-
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.  The reason for  this  is  that  you
       will then be able to track progress in fixing the problem.   Other com-
       ments about find(1) and about the findutils package in general  can  be
       sent  to  the bug-findutils mailing list.  To join the list, send email
       to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

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